How does a Hoverboard or Self Balancing Scooter Work?

While cruising down the streets on your favorite hoverboard, have you ever stopped to think what makes it work? So how does a hoverboard or self balancing scooter work? This post will offer a simplified insight into its functionality and operation. After reading this piece, you will find out what is inside these magical devices that make them work and how it functions the way it does. Without further ado, let’s just head on to the technical stuff.

Components Inside a Hoverboard

What seems like a simple device on the outside is quite complex if you take a peek inside. The following are the components that you will find inside your hoverboard:

A steel frame with a pivot at the center
*  Dual motors
Logic board
Two wheels
Two gyroscopes
Two IR sensors
Two speed sensors
Charging port
Power switch
Plastic shell
LED lights
Pressure pads

How does a Hoverboard detect Movement?

Now that you have the complete list of components that are inside the hoverboard, let’s also understand how they work together and produce movement according to your requirements. It is the movement of your body that will translate into the movement of the board. So what makes it all happen? It’s the pairs of gyroscopes and speed sensors that will work together to detect your movement and convert it into the movement of the hoverboard.

The pair of gyroscopes will read and understand the distribution of weight on the pressure pads and convey it to the logic board to convert it into the movement of the wheels. Together with the gyroscopes, the speed sensors will read the degree of tilt on the pressure pads that you produce using your toes or your heels and decide upon the speed at which the wheels will go.

The pressure pads on the hoverboard are just as important as the sensors in detecting motion. Each of your feet will be placed on a pressure pad and each pressure pad will have two switches placed below it. When your body leans forward, the forward switch, under the pressure pad, is pushed down which triggers a forwards motion of the hoverboard. Similarly, when you lean backward, the backward switch is pushed down which will motion the hoverboard to move in the backward direction.

What makes a Hoverboard Move?

The logic board is the brain of your hoverboard. It’s where all the processing work takes place. It takes input from the gyroscope and speed sensors and decides upon the amount of acceleration, deceleration or turn that the hoverboard will take. The information that the logic board processes is then conveyed to the motors to make suitable adjustments and produce the requested movement. The logic board is also capable of limiting the speed of the hoverboard such as when you are riding in beginner mode. It can also lock the motors if you have selected the ‘locked’ mode.


These movements of the hoverboard will give you a balanced and customized ride depending on your skill level and other requirements. The power to run the motors comes from the preinstalled battery pack. You may also purchase it separately if the original batteries have worn out.

How do the Hoverboard Lights Work?

Your hoverboard will also include many lights. Not all of these lights are simply for aesthetics. Yes, some hoverboards have lights all around the wheels to make you look cool on the road but the ones on the front are headlights. These front lights are there to guide you in the dark. In addition to front lights, you will also find status lights which will tell you the status of the battery and whether the hoverboard is on or not.


So now you understand all the secrets behind these trendy gadgets. The next time you step onto the hoverboard you will know exactly what goes on inside the beautiful plastic body and the chain of actions that are triggered simply by a slight tilt of your body. Learning about the smart mechanism of these gadgets will undoubtedly develop complete confidence in the amazing technology of self-balancing. Since these hoverboards do much of the balancing work on their own, it shouldn’t be hard to master at all. In fact, most riders only take a few hours to learn the basics.